Archive December 2012
|Orwell, Koestler and the Noir Brigade
Authors Reality Check is written by a group of professional authors who measure
their literary work with an authenticity ruler. As 2012 winds down, I’d like to
look at the tradition of two authors: George Orwell and Arthur Koestler who have
had influence on my own attitudes about what to write about, and matching
experience to story and character. The best of noir/political fiction draws
upon, in my opinion, the real life experience of an author who has found
him/herself a victim of violence or has lived through the aftermath of violence
inside a shattered community.
Both Orwell and Koestler’s
lives were shaped by civil war and world war, and the lessons they learnt from
the political front lines has forever carved images of official violence into
our collective memory. 1984 and Darkness at Noon are prime
examples of noir novels written by authors who had personally witnessed such
darkness of the human condition.
In noir fiction, the
officials and party functionaries are armed by ideology and guns. The state
monopoly of violence is sold by the State as the best solution to protect you
against chaos and the violence of your neighbors and strangers. As history
shows, there are many examples where such officials use their power not to
protect you from lawless forces, but to advance their own interest. The
government becomes a racket for those who govern. They block a citizen’s passage
down the winding, twisting roads of alternative thought and ideas. They erect
intellectual tollgates, demanding supplication, loyalty and purity of belief.
These attitudes are preconditions to a noir world.
There is no bargaining,
compromising, or negotiating inside this noir world. Any response short of total
agreement invites those official forces to restrict, intimidate or if need be
destroy the dissenter. Both Orwell and Koestler have written the ultimate noir
novels. In Darkness
at Noon and 1984, the loyal insider confesses to a false crime rather than
repudiate his belief in the institution and its leaders. A false historical
narrative is an extension of voluntary confessions to false crimes. Such
confessions lead to death or psychological destruction of the confessor. That is
how noir ends. Not with hope but despair.
Who has the credibility to
write about false historical narratives? Orwell wrote an essay suggesting it can
only be artistically rendered by an author who lived inside the false historical
narrative and accepted it for a long period of time as the truth. Only an author
with that experience can convey the authenticity of repression, and recreate the
actual psychology conditions of people who live and die in such regimes. The
outsider, the expat, comes into the new culture of ideology with idealism that
can easily turn into a descent into the worst kind of psychological
a review of Arthur Koestler’s classic novel: Darkness
George Orwell wrote an
essay about Koestler in which he spoke about a generation of European writers
that wrote ‘political’ books with the kind of authority that Orwell felt was
lacking in English writers.
Orwell wrote in 1941 that
these Europeans were “trying to write contemporary history, but UNOFFICIAL
history, the kind that is ignored in the text-books and lied about in the
newspapers. Also they are all alike in being continental Europeans. It may be an
exaggeration, but it cannot be a very great one, to say that whenever a book
dealing with totalitarianism appears in this country, and still seems worth
reading six months after publication, it is a book translated from some foreign
language. English writers, over the past dozen years, have poured forth an
enormous spate of political literature, but they have produced almost nothing of
aesthetic value, and very little of historical value either.”
The subtext is that unless
the author has emerged from the context of where totalitarianism is an
all-encompassing aspect of their life, having been part of the process that
defines the identity and mindset, they are better equipped to communicate the
psychological range like an experience bent over his sheet of music reading the
score and conducting the symphony.
The central question for
Orwell in Darkness at Noon was why the Bolshevik named Rubashov, who
had committed no crime, confessed to a false one? The book is a study of the
psychology of a true-believer who has for irrational reason been falsely charged
with a crime. What would have been in Orwell’s view a mere polemic if it had
been written by an American or English writer in the hands of Koestler because
he has experienced what he’s writing about can raise the experience to an
Experience was something
that Koestler could draw upon. He was sent to Spain during the Civil War in the
1930s and was arrested and imprisoned and came very close to being shot. But for
the intervention of powerful friends abroad his fate would have death. Like
Orwell, who also saw action in the Spanish Civil War, Koestler survived to brush
up against death during World War II. He escaped Paris as the Nazis arrived in
Koestler had written
Darkness in Noon in German, leaving the manuscript with Daphne Hardy.
She translated the book into English before escaping France herself. Believing a
false rumor that Hardy’s ship had been sunk, Koestler attempted suicide. His
long literary life included encounters with the famous figures from World War II
to contemporary times: Thomas Mann, Dylan Thomas, George Orwell, Mary McCarthy,
Timothy Leary, Salman Rushdie and Cyril Connolly.
The irony of both
1984 and Darkness at Noon is the anti-hero in both is doomed
from the beginning, and it is the struggle against that fate that makes them
compelling, timeless, and disturbing. In an age where ‘entertainment’ is the
byword, ‘disturbing’ political novels are out of favour while books written by
authors whose lives are remote from any front line produce books like Fifty
Shades of Grey. The growing interest in noir fiction, authentic
fiction written by authors who have experienced the crack of the whip not in a
sensual setting but in a political one and who know the difference, shows
readers have an appetite for political novels that speak to a larger truth when
the agents of repression come calling.
For most people deception comes early on. Around Christmas time millions of children believe that Santa Claus will come to their house and leave gifts from them as rewards for their good behavior in the previous year. It is no surprise that one of the first lessons a child learns is that those most close to them, the ones they trust and feel most secure with, are capable of deception. Christmas and noir become coupled with a child’s first introduction to how corruption works as Christmas approaches. Santa Claus expects a reward on his time and investment in terms of milk and cookies. Children leave him an offering. It is the first bribe they pay with the encouragement of their family. Christmas Noir features a fat bearded man with supernatural powers (to get over the speed of light limitations), and he comes dressed in weird clothes, and he judges your record over the past year and bribery is part of the deal.
Christmas Noir doesn’t stop with a fat magical warlord and his corrupt practices, it extents to his whole business model. For instance, parents leave out the tiny detail that Santa Claus’s so-called elves who work around the clock to make toys for billions of children are likely children slaving inside a sweatshop. The noir reality is the child is accepting gifts from a corrupt sweatshop slaver. Let’s don’t get started on the animal cruelty in the treatment of reindeer which beaten until they fly and then must land and take off on billions of rooftops all on one night.
The mother and father’s deception about Santa Claus can be dressed up as a ‘white lie’ to preserve childhood innocence and a tradition that is part of the cultural heritage. No matter what dress you put on a horse, it remains a horse. A lie dressed up as culture and tradition can never shed its origin as born in deception.
In the adult world, having served in the front ranks of disillusioned Santa Claus believers, we are nonetheless primed for further deceptions by politicians, conmen, bankers, terrorists, and by friends on Facebook and Twitter. It is a mixed bag and we are on alert for those who deceive, looking for signs and omens, remembering how easily we were duped as a child and swearing not to let that happen again.
The old Santa Claus story reappears despite our early training to spot deceit. Property bubbles, ponzi schemes, Bernie Madoff, Nigerian offers to split offshore loot by a recently deceased general, are among a vast array of criminal activities that depend on the ‘fish’ taking the bait. And it seems there are enough fish in the sea that even if only a few bite, you can fill the boat with fish jumping into the boat and not waiting for the hook.
One of the functions of the justice system and the political system is to prevent deception. That’s why Campbell’s soup label can’t outright lie about the contents including salt and sugar levels. Medicine, cars, TVs, computers, phones all come with puffing about their superior features, functionality, and usefulness. Placebo in place of a pill with active ingredients is allowed in certain blind studies but the patients are informed that someone of them will be receiving a ‘fake’ pill.
The laws, police and courts monitor commercial behavior for deception and punish those found guilty of deceitful conduct. Most of the time. While our parents don’t go to jail when it is clear they lied about Santa Claus, someone who operates a boiler room and sells worthless shares to your grandmothers are arrested and sentenced to prison. Some of the time.
Governments spend large sums of money seeking to effectively gather information about criminals who use deception to mask the crime, or their trail after committing a crime, or finding how and where they stashed their ill-gotten gains. Every legal system and culture has its own set of ideas about how best to go about detecting the deceivers among us.
The most obvious way to find people committing criminal acts is to catch them in the act. Criminals may be dumb but they aren’t altogether stupid. If they believe they are being watched or listened to—the eyes off the police are on them—they are unlikely to commit the theft, mugging, assault, murder or drunk driving. Deception is the art of not getting caught. It is also a cat and mouse game, where each side tries to stay one step ahead of the other. The question is who is winning the deception game? The deceivers who are able to either use deceit to take an unlawful advantage or having committed any crime use deceit to avoid detection.
Below is the picture of a new watchtower on Walking Street in Pattaya: a place of bars, nightclubs, and massage parlors. Thousands of people walk along this street every night of the week. The street is closed to traffic. A vibrant nightlife attracts criminals from pickpockets to drug dealers. These are examples of the kind of criminal activity that depends on deception. The question is whether the police officer in the tower is better at this job that CCTV cameras that feed into a monitoring system watched by the police.
The watchtower mentality goes back to defending castles. Like moats, watchtowers are defensive instruments to protect mainly against surprise attack. Or in the case of a prison, a surprise escape by prisoners or a surprise visit by friends and family of the prisoners. In any event, using a watchtower to detect street crime has some uphill problems. In a culture of face, perhaps the mere presence of a tower overlooking a street is enough to instill fear in potential criminals that they sleek off to the side streets–out of police sight–and commit the crime.
The Bangkok Post
Another example of watchfulness is the blimp bought for use to fight terrorists in the South of Thailand. As a surveillance system, it has most of the limitation of a watchtower, only it is higher off the ground. In this case, the blimp cost around $10M, and had chronic problems from the start. Meaning it had so many additional accessories it apparently had trouble staying airborne. When those problems appeared to be addressed, in the first flight, the blimp crashed and is in for repairs. The idea behind the blimp was to expose deceptive conduct by would-be terrorists who seek to disguise themselves or their criminal activities on the ground. Instead the focus of attention shifted from terrorists to possible deception in the acquisition of the blimp. Deception, in other words, can be like those Russian dolls. Or it can be a retelling of the Santa Claus story in a novel way.
The final example is the GT200, a device bought by the army to detect landmines hidden along roads in the South of Thailand and set off by remote control as military vehicles passed over them. Like the blimp, the idea was to use high-technology as a means to check deception by terrorists by discovering ambush points where their lethal mines had been set. Only it turned out the army was deceived by the sellers of the GT200 who faced criminal charges in the UK for—I am certain you are ready for this—deception and fraud. The GT200 had the circuitry sophistication of a Barbie doll. There were also allegations about the high purchase price paid for the GT200 devices, i.e., around Baht 1,000,000 per device. What had been bought to detect terrorists didn’t work and questions about sourcing, testing and evaluating the device according to transparent standards disappeared from sight and into the general fog that people understand to mean if they know what is good for them they don’t ask such questions.
We are left without Santa Claus’s heritage, which, like GT200, and the Blimp and the Watchtower, are from an earlier belief system. When the government is our parent we enter the zone where Santa Claus, like Schrödinger’s cat is neither dead nor alive. We must first open the box and look inside. This was what George Orwell sought to show as the duty of a writer. Now, however, the duty is not so much to expose official deceit as to entertain and flatter. Because we know that if look really hard and reveal an inconvenient truth that we will likely be in big trouble. No presents for troublemakers. No one wishes to risk being the only one that Santa didn’t bring a Christmas present to this year. The only one who made Santa angry and lose face. So our generation goes along with watchtowers, blimps and GT200s believing they actually exist and work for us.
The message from childhood remains the same—you will be judged by a powerful person who runs a sweatshop racket, someone with supernatural power and he expects a bribe. Those who we assume are most responsible for looking after us are the ones who are the mostly likely to deceive us in the end. That makes for a noir Christmas. But it also brings us to a New Year where just maybe we will find George Orwell’s courage to use truth to combat lies from the official and corporate world.
The murky world of
criminal has its fair share of morons. In the noir world, criminals are
aggressive, sinister, violent and unstable. In the real world there is are all
kinds of people who aren’t good at their chosen occupation. Some people don’t
have what it takes to be a criminal.
While 2012 has yet to end,
people are drawing up list of the most stupid criminals.
Here are some
The little known defense
of claiming to be a Werewolf doesn’t work in most jurisdictions.
1. Claim diminished
capacity as a result of being involuntarily made a Werewolf
No one bothered to inform
Thomas Stroup of the limitations of such a defense. Ohio police arrested Thomas
and charged him for underage drinking. The evidence was reasonably clear. Thomas
was passed out in a trailer encircled by swords. Other residents in the
trailer park had complained that Thomas started fights and was otherwise a nasty
character. When confronted by the police, Stroup said he was sober though
admitted his behavior was strange though beyond his control as he’d been
scratched by a wolf in Germany. And this wolf like spirit had motivated him to
kill the officer’s cousin named Keith. Only the officer had no cousin named
2. The Dude Abides. At home
Christopher Jansen was on
trial in March in Pontiac, Michigan for drug possession. Young Christopher
claimed that he had been searched without a warrant. The DA countered that the
arresting officer acted properly without a search warrant as he had probable
cause. He saw a “bulge” in Christopher’s jacket and thought it might have been a
gun. Christopher objected to that conclusion. It turned out he was wearing
the same jacket that day in court. He removed the jacket and handed to the judge
for inspection. The judge removed a packet of cocaine from the jacket pocket.
The judge laughed so hard he needed a five-minute recess to get a grip on his
giggles before the trial could resume.
3. Closer to home there
are endless examples of foreign tourists who leave their thinking mind at home
arrive in Thailand and discover. . . .Like everywhere else there are
If you take a couple of
tourists and decide to get drunk, but at some stage they want to have
some fun or transportation to the hotel—why, after all it is holiday, do both.
So they steal a motorbike owned a taxi driver who worked at a taxi queue in
South Pattaya. It seems that Mr. Govind Lal aged 43 and Mr. Varun Kumar Guel
aged 28, could pass that motorcycle without noticing the key had been left in
the ignition. There is no explanation of what distracted the other motorcycle
taxi driver in the queue. The motorcycle owner, Moragort aged 32 admitted his
bladder was killing him as he rushed away leaving the key into the ignition to
use the toilet. After he returns, his bike is gone.
But with the bamboo
telegraph in hyper mode, the missing bike and the two Indians are spotted on
Second Road in Pattaya. Friends of Khun Moragort forced the bike to spot and
took the two Indians to Pattaya Police Station. The suspects defense was one the
local cops had likely many times was they only intended to borrow the
motorcycle, have some fun and besides they were far too drunk to have the
criminal intent to commit a theft. Khun Moragort, the crime victim, must have
been quite upset to hear the Indians prattling a defense reserved only for Thais
caught in these circumstances. That is the only explanation for his refusal to
accept a financial compensation package by the two suspects. No way these guys
were going to pay their way out of justice. The two Indians were remanded for
4. Tourists not only get
drunk and commit stupid crimes, when they stay longer than their bankroll, the
real fun begins on formulating really stupid plans to replenish their
wallets. And what better place to get money than a bank? Why not rip an ATM
machine out of the wall, cut it open like a mad, beast and drain out the
money? You have now entered the chain of reasoning that makes desperate men into
morons. In June, 2012, in Chon Buri, Alexander Milbourn, 25, and Shaun Edward
Tracy, 34, had a brilliant plan to attack an ATM at the Bank of Ayudhya’s Laem
Chabang branch. The local police said the two hit the ATM late night of June
The two Britons groused
out a third man, they called Richard (a popular name among British Expats in
Pattaya). Richard was on the lamb. One wonders which one of these guys was the
ringleader. They’ve got a map. Or maybe not. They just think on impulse hit the
ATMs in Si Racha district, at Bangkok Bank’s Bo Win, Bank of Ayudhya’s Laem
Chabang branch and Bank of Ayudhya’s Bo Win branch. There is a slight preference
for Bank of Ayudhya ATMs thought the sample is small so it might be just random
noise and no pattern is discernable for the name of the bank.
This is where it is gets
interesting. If you are going to steal something built into a wall to prevent
theft you have to respect that whoever installed the ATM machine would have made
it difficult to easily pry lose. Or so you would think. But you’re not out of
money and desperate in Pattaya like these three Britons. Their plan was to tie a
tow sling around the ATM and attach the other end of the sling to their car’s
bumper. Both ends secure, ATM to car bumper, driver gets in and pushes the
accelerator to the floor. It didn’t work. In all three attempts, the tow sling
failed to pry the ATM lose. One might think after the first failure, the gang
might have a rethink of technique. But, no, they tried-second time. By the third
time they must have been resigned to touring ATM machines by the thousands in
Pattaya in hopes there was at least one that would prove they were right and the
first three machines were just flukes of bad luck. What would a reasonable thief
do? Change cars. It must be the car’s fault.
It also might occur to
most people (especially Britons) that banks have significantly more CCTV cameras
than tellers and other staff. They are watching you. Not these boys. It took
them three failed attempts to get the attention of the police who gradually
became aware that someone was attempting to steal ATM machines. The point is the
tourists got caught and were probably just as surprised at being arrested as
they were when the second and third ATM machines to be ripped out of the
The police have taken into
custody, the tow sling, the two car(s) used in the attempted thefts and were
still looking for Richard. Personally, I think the Indians handled it much
better—with their imaginary friend Richard, they could have claimed they were
very drunk and had mistaken the ATM machines for paragliding docking stations
and had no idea they had anything to do with banking. It might not have worked
any better for the Britons than it had for the Indians. Yet the Thai justice
system has a lot of tolerance for drunks. It has very little for sober tourists
tying tow slips to their ATM machines.
When you are on holiday,
don’t commit a crime. If you decide to break that rule, think about how dumb
your plan is, borrow the money from mum or dad or a friend, and go back home.
Because none of your friends are going to tie a tow sling to her cell bars and
clear a path for your freedom.
|NOIR WEEKEND IN PHNOM PENH
On Friday 30th
November we launched Phnom Penh Noir at the FCCC in Phnom Penh before a
crowd of about 200 people. I acted as emcee for the evening.
KROM, Sophea singing the song Ying
(Photo credit: KROM)
Audience around KROM performance
(Photo credit: KROM)
Christopher Minko, KROM (Photo
We started off with two
songs by KROM from their Songs from the Noir album: My Way and the
Ying. Christopher Minko who wrote the lyrics is the man behind KROM and his
lyrics are part of Phnom Penh Noir. Christopher Minko has been
involved in a number of charities supporting Cambodians with disabilities. He
has fought more than his share of noir type battles to see that disabled
volleyball and basketball players were able to compete successfully in
Following the KROM
performance, Kosal Khiev took the stage. If you want a genuinely noir story,
Kosal delivers it in spades. As a toddler he and his family left a Thai refugee
camp for America. For a lot of reasons, the land of promise and dreams didn’t
work out for him. From age 16, he spent the next 16 years of his life in an
American prison. When he was released, the Americans deported him to Cambodia, a
place he had no real connection. He was an American in culture but a foreigner
by birth. No passport—he was in prison and never had chance to get one—meant he
could be deported. He lived in the street for a few months until he got his
first gig in Phnom Penh. He’d studied writing and poetry in prison and had
turned this training into the kind of performance art that stays with you,
haunting your dreams.
Kosal and his mother had
some large issues. She felt he’d wasted his time on music and poetry, and was
after him to get a ‘real’ job like other men his age, other members of the
tight-knit Khmer community in the States. Mothers talk and brag about their
kinds. Especially when their sons receive a regular paycheck. They all had sons
who worked in a shop, a plumber, electrician, etc but rap/poet performers? She
could not grasp the concept. Her son was homeless in Phnom Penh. In fact he
represented Cambodia at the Cultural Olympaid in 2012 in London, had appeared on
TEDx, the BBC, and won a major prize in Germany—those were abstract things. They
weren’t a paycheck. That night before 200 people, Kosal’s mother sat in chair as
her son sang one of those power storms of loss and regret. She cried. Members of
the audience cried. After he finished they embraced. It was as if for the first
time she had accepted her son for what he was and what he wanted to do in life.
She understood his power and that he had the truth he could tell. She was
finally proud of her son. It was one of the most moving moments I can recall. I
hate crying in public. Men shouldn’t do that. But I did.
Suong Mak and Christopher G. Moore
(Photo credit: Suong Mak)
Next I introduced Roland
Joffé, director of the iconic film The Killing Fields. His story Hearts
and Minds is the lead story in Phnom Penh Noir. It was his first short
story, and everyone who has read it has been touched by it. Roland had been also
very moved by the reconciliation of Kosal and his mother. He spoke of how he met
Haing Ngor, the Cambodian doctor, who played a pivotal role of the Khmer
journalist Dith Pran in the movie. Haing Ngor, who could speak English,
was on the set fixing this, helping out with the Khmers on the set, everywhere
at the same time. Roland had asked him about being in the movie. Haing Ngor said
he wouldn’t. They talked again, about the Khmer Rouge, the killings, the desire
to make a film that would portray those who had suffered during this time. Haing
Ngor finally agreed after understanding that he would be able to take that
message to the world. Not for himself (he wasn’t a selfish man) but on behalf of
his countrymen who had lived and died during the Pol Pot years. It was another
highly emotional moment as Roland Joffé hoped that wherever Haing Ngor was, he
wasn’t forgotten, as we all honoured his memory and his contribution to The
Roland also said that he
looked forward to telling more stories but more importantly to see Cambodian
telling their own stories. He told The Cambodia
Daily a day before
“The next crop of
Cambodian stories are not necessarily [mine], or any other Westerners, to
The last speaker of the
night was John Burdett, whose story Love and Death at Angkor appears in
Phnom Penh Noir. John articulated the concept of noir, placing it in
the historical context of French film, as well as classical literature like
Shakespeare’s. He was the right person to that as he’s a fluent French speaker
and studied literature in university. He captured the essence of what noir means
and articulated context of where Phnom Penh Noir fit into this noir
tradition. Vulture Peak is John’s latest novel. If you want to give a
great holiday present to someone in your family or friend, I can’t think of a
better crime novel.
Christopher G. Moore, John Burdett,
Bob Bergin and Suong Mak, rising Cambodian literary star (behind John
It was a noir evening with
many a non-noir twist and turns down the emotional road that Cambodia delivers.
Also attending that evening were other authors who contributed to Phnom Penh
Noir: Bob Bergin, Neil Wilford, Suong Mak, and Jack Narciso. Bob came in
from America for the event, and Jack from Italy. We missed James Grady, Praba
Yoon, Bopha Phorn, and Richard Rubenstein. They were missed. A video of the
evening is being edited and will soon be on YouTube.
Christopher G. Moore, Peter Gray
and Roland Joffé
On Saturday, Roland Joffé
was the featured speaker at the Rotary Club of Cambodia and I had the privilege
to introduce him before a luncheon crowd. The event was fund raising for
Cambodian with disabilities. Peter Gray and Lity Yap brought together a good
group to hear Roland speak about how Christopher Minko was one of his heroes
(mine too) for his efforts to help those no one else was helping.
Yap (second from left) and Christopher Minko and Lity’s friends
On Sunday we had two
workshops at Meta House where Bob Bergin, Jack Narciso, Neil Wilford,
Christopher Minko and Suong Mak, and myself talked about writing and our stories
in Phnom Penh Noir.
House workshop afternoon session
House workshop evening session
Noir weekend in Phnom Penh
touched a lot of lives. Christopher Minko was the steady hand on the scene who
worked tirelessly for months to ensure these events would come about. Arranging
sponsors and partners like Johnny Walker and Heineken beer. Also David
Armstrong, Alan Parkhouse, and Poppy McPherson at the Phnom Penh Post who let
their readership know about the authors and the events.