Archive September 2007
|Burma and the difference between Hardboiled and Noir
Monks were shot and killed in Rangoon. Crackdown troops have been called into
the capital from the provinces. As the Blues song says, “You’ve only got your
life to lose.”
Burma is a collection of many small nations with diverse
histories, languages, cultures and aspirations. It is difficult if not
impossible to say how a consensus would emerge in the event the military leaves
the scene. General Aung San showed a way toward a solution. So it is possible.
As for Yugoslavia or Iraq, the analogies may not hold. Analogies work better in
science and literature than in politics where the dropped glass always breaks in
a new and novel pile of debris. From this distance, it appears the military has
managed to unite these diverse groups in a common cause.
They say hardboiled
comes down to a tough perspective on life but there
out of the howling silence in dark back streets some good can be found. There is
a crack of light and if you follow it, then you might just keep your life and
one or two small dreams. Noir
is a locked room with no way out. No matter how hard you
try, there is no hope, no chance of getting out, and no helping hand offered
will mean a damn thing.
The Burmese are in the middle of a large crime
fiction story. There will be more than one broken heart, more than a few monks
clubbed or shot, and more than hurt and tragedy than any one story can ever
In the streets of Rangoon and dozens of small towns in Burma,
monks, students, shopkeepers, and the mass of people have hard choices in the
few days. Do you bolt the door and hide under the bed; or do you take to the
streets? What would you do? Unless you’ve spent time in Burma, you can’t really
understand how desperate it is for most people. We are talking about lack of
electricity, fuel, and food. This is about basic necessities to live. Climb up
the hilltop and look down and see nothing but hunger, repression, and
hopelessness. Would you stay under the bed or take to the streets?
world is waiting to find out whether the horror of repression is only the first
act of a hardboiled drama or the third act of a noir drama with the curtain
falling hard. It’s the difference between getting knocked down and getting up
from the floor and finding a way out. That’s hardboiled. But sometimes when a
man is knocked down, he stays down. He’s finished. That's noir. When a noir
ending happens to an entire country, that scales crime and tragedy beyond what
most of us can comprehend.
My only regret is that I’m not in Rangoon.
If you want to keep up on the latest about developments in Burma, here
are some websites: New Mandala Asia SentinelSiam
SentinelThailand Jumped the Shark
|The Reading Space in Thailand
Cynthia Ozick’s The
Din in the Head discussed in the Joseph Epstein article should spark some
cultural soul searching in other countries. While the Americans worry about the
advance of technological proxies to increase exposure to the crowd, in Asia the
crowd has played a much a different role. The issue isn’t technology. The issue
is the cultural constraints on people wishing to withdraw to innerness, to
separate themselves from the crowd. Meditation springs to mind where such a
withdrawal has broad cultural support.
But does this cultural support
extend to the sphere of reading? The default for most Thais is submerging
themselves in their crowd – friends, colleagues or families. This is not a crowd
of strangers; but a crowd that functions as an inside group. If a Thai were to
make himself unavailable to the in-group because he or she is reading a novel,
that would be thought to be selfish (if not eccentric behavior).
that Thais don’t like to read is to miss the point. Reading requires a kind of
withdrawal from communal life and most Thais would find that lonely and painful.
The trade offs in entertainment, knowledge and information would not be
sufficient compensation for the loss of being part of the crowd.
explanation is in the education system. In China, historically the Mandarin
class was heavily drawn from the peasant class. Scholarship, discipline study
and intellectual pursuit were highly valued at the grass root level. Though a
communal society, the Chinese were able to establish a space where reading and
writing were valued. The practical reality of the system over a thousand years
led to the basis of good government. Thailand has no history of drawing upon the
peasant classes for high government office and service. The Mandarin class
wasn’t drawn from the peasant class.
One might argue that in the West,
reading is a preoccupation of the middle-class and that the late development of
a middle class in Thailand has more to do with a lack of reading tradition than
the absence of a system that tracked the Chinese Mandarin system.
other to read, a private space of solitude is necessary. Such space is needed by
writers to create a narrative universe of words. It is in this confined space
that readers and writers converge, where the twin solitudes share a world
compose of words. Readers often feel that they know the author of the book they
have read. A book may have magically channeled some of their deepest thoughts
and emotions. In any event, a novel can’t be written with the backdrop chatter
of a crowd ringing in the writer’s ear; nor can it be read in such an
It may be that the West, from this cultural perspective, is
becoming more “noisy” and crowded and reading books decreasing, but there will
always be people who check into the quiet space with a book to read. Authors are
responsible to bring to that private space provocative, intelligent, stimulating
and memorable narratives that help to give shape to the ideas about how we live
or how we should live.
|The Invasion into the Reading Space
Joseph Epstein is one of America’s foremost social and literary critics. The
rare breed of thinker who draws lessons from the intersection where technology
and literature collide. In his article “The Literary Life” at 23 Epstein writes:
“A good heart
remains the first requisite for a great novelist. *** So many young novelists
appear to be up against the same problem, settling for composing books that go
in for verbal feats and imaginative flights over gripping moral dramas: I have
in mind the novels of Michael Chabon, David Foster Wallace, Gary Shtayngart,
Jeffrey Eugenides, among others. Belief goes to the heart of the problem: if you
don’t know what you believe in, you cannot construct moral dramas, which leaves
you with making jokes through elaborate literary constructs to make the sham
point about reality not quite existing, or that life is really no more than a
dream, sha-boom, sha-boom.”
Epstein also expands upon Cynthia Ozick’s
Din in the Head. The idea is that the new technology, the Internet,
iphones, ipods, email created spaces filled by crowds. Novels – both reading and
writing – need a space of silence and solitude. The world of words flourishes
only outside of the crowd, with it’s noise, intellectual clutter and the
staggeringly ever present machines streaming messages of distraction.
|Word of Mouth in publishing and the Blurb
One question that comes up in publishing fiction is how to get someone in a
bookstore to pickup and buy a book by an unknown author. We have all picked up a
book where we didn’t know the author. What makes a reader take the chance on
such a book? Part of the decision is connected with validation. If a friend or a
member of our family has read a book and recommended it, that might be enough to
tip the scales. And often it is. Or if we’ve read an appealing review of a book
by a critic we trust, then we would often buy it.
Where there is no
worth of mouth from friends or family, and no review, but you are attracted to
the title, the subject and the cover, what can help you make up your mind? A
recent article in the Denver Post says it is the blurb on the back of the novel you
are holding. And bookstore employees are also readers, how do they view blurbs?
“Cathy Langer, lead buyer for the Tattered Cover bookstores, said that
blurbs serve any number of useful purposes. As a reader, she said blurbs "really
influence how I see things," and she believes the store's customers see things
Crime fiction book critic Sarah Weinman looks at
what might be behind the blurb:
“I tend to go with Langer's point of view
but that's because as soon as I see who blurbs a book - or the number of
blurbers - I have a ballpark estimate of how much the publisher is supporting
the book. Even if it's only one or two people, the quality of writers chosen is
still a pretty good indicator of how much weight said publisher is throwing
behind the book. But reading blurbs is fun as a means of guessing semi-hidden
relationships, whether the blurb was, in fact, written by the associated writer
and other less-than-above-board things.”
|Looking Inside the Human Mind
The best fiction is often the result of character development that creates an
arc of intellect and emotion, finely tuned, elaborately structured, and with
broad spectrum or range. Such characters bore deep into our own consciousness as
if in the story telling, the author has found a way to channel our own thoughts.
The advances in psychology and cognition research continues to reveal
more about the way our emotions and intellect are networked. A recent article in
The Edge worth reading on the subject is by Jonathan Haidt and titled: MORAL PSYCHOLOGY AND THE MISUNDERSTANDING OF RELIGION
Here’s an excerpt:
“The basic idea is that we did not evolve
language and reasoning because they helped us to find truth; we evolved these
skills because they were useful to their bearers, and among their greatest
benefits were reputation management and manipulation.
Just look at
your stream of consciousness when you are thinking about a politician you
dislike, or when you have just had a minor disagreement with your spouse. It's
like you're preparing for a court appearance. Your reasoning abilities are
pressed into service generating arguments to defend your side and attack the
other. We are certainly able to reason dispassionately when we have no gut
feeling about a case, and no stake in its outcome, but with moral disagreements
that's rarely the case. As David Hume said long ago, reason is the servant of
The problem is the expectation that truth can prevail
over “face” and over “opportunistic” behavior. The cultural aspects further
confound the role of truth in the mix of competing interest. This is one reason
why good novels will always have an audience as the best stories work out the
way truth and the interest that truth must compete with attract our attention as
readers. That is no surprise. People want it all at the same time: truth, face,
fairness to others, and grace under fire. When we say a character is flawed, we
are saying that he or she will turn truth on its head if the case of a larger
benefit turns up.
How much truth can people accept from their leaders,
generals, religious figures, scholars and teachers? The verdict on this question
remains for another day.
|Asia Crime Fiction in the news
Manchester based novelist Michael Walters has written two crime novels set in Mongolia. Walters is a management consultant by trade. I would expect he would have an interesting angle on business deals in Mongolia. The English editions are available on amazon.co.uk, and the American edition of the first book will be released by Berkly Books in 2008. Meanwhile English edition of The Shadow Walker released in May 2007 by Quercus is available on amazon.com.
The Shadow Walker, a British geologist turns up in a Mongolia minus his head. The hero is a police officer named Negrui. And the first two books have drawn praise for the description of Mongolia, the culture, the people, and the legal system. Negrui partners with an English police inspector and they track the bad guys through the Gobi desert.
The Adversary, the second in the series is a crime/suspense thriller with the set up being an influential businessman buys his way out of a prosecution with some fake evidence. That sounds familiar enough. And the cop and judge who tried to nail the warlord has no sense of humor, and does everything in his power to plot his revenge.
A tip of the cap to Peter Rozovsky at Detectives Beyond Borders: A Forum for International Crime Fiction for bringing this author to my attention.
|Budget Airline Crash in Phuket
Yesterday a MD-82 twin-engine departing from Bangkok crashed as it attempted to
land at Phuket airport. Reports here list 88 known dead about around 42
passengers survived the crash. Among the dead 50 were foreigners. The flight was
on One Two Go flight OG 269. There had been heavy rain and gusting winds at the
time of the crash.
Last night all the local stations along with CNN
carried footage of the crash. The plane split in part on impact. Some passengers
were thrown out of the crashed plane; most died for fire or suffocation inside.
The plane caught fire after the impact. Apparently there wasn’t much time until
the entire plane was consumed in flames. Reports indicate that many passengers
had been knocked unconscious by the force of the impact and still had their
seatbelts on when the flames incinerated the aircraft.
didn't have long to leave the plane; most of the survivors were in the back of
the plane and were able to scramble out of windows, emergency exit or holes in
the broken aircraft. Foreigners listed as killed were from Australia, Austria,
Britain, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Sweden and the Netherlands.
theory is pilot error. The pilot was among those listed as killed. Years ago
when I lived in England on several occasions I trained on the flight simulator
at Heathrow Airport. One purpose of the simulator is to train pilots in bad
weather conditions. Wind shear, electrical storms, heavy rain, fog, or snow are
all part of the training. It would be interesting to know how extensively the
budget airlines flight training is for their pilots. Such training is expensive
and time consuming and the question must be asked whether budget carriers to
trim costs on these cheap flights are paying for pilots who have had the best
training and regular flight simulator exercises.
Authors of crime fiction often draw from real events to interject the feel of
reality into their novels. Sometimes, though, reality becomes stranger than
fiction, and the author may using “facts” that spoil the fictional world. For
example, take a long trial before a jury and the judge nods off. No doubt this
has happened on more than one occasion. But what if the judge has a condition
that predisposes him to suddenly slip into a coma like sleep?
There is a
court decision on this precise point that deserves wider circulation. In this
case a judge who presided (when he was a awake) over a criminal case where the
defendants were accused of drug offense. The judge fell asleep during the trial.
Not once, but many times. The two defendants were found guilty by a jury, and
they appealed on the not wholly unreasonable argument that the judge should have
been awake during their trial.
Here’s what the dissenting appellate
court judge in Australia (New South Wales Court of Criminal Appeal) had to say:
First he reviewed the evidence:
“Sometimes when the judge was
asleep I noticed that some members of the jury would look at the judge and then
look at each other and then look back to the judge very intently. It was clear
to me that some of the jury appeared to be paying a lot of attention to the
judge when he was sleeping. During the times when the judge was asleep for long
periods I noticed that many of the jurors appeared not to be paying attention to
what was being said and would appear restless. They would fidget, look at each
other, watch the judge, look around, appear to be scribbling and generally
appear to lose concentration. This was very different to how the jury reacted
when the judge was awake. At those times they would appear to be paying
attention, generally looking at whoever was speaking or at their papers when
asked. It was very obvious to me that there was a real difference in the jury’s
behaviour when the judge was asleep.”
Here’s what the convicted men
argued at the appellate level:
“9. When I was giving my evidence I was facing the bar table
and the jury and the judge was behind me. At times during the prosecutor’s
cross-examination I heard a deep rumbling noise come from behind me. At first I
was not sure what it was and then I realised that it was snoring. It became
louder and I realised that some of the other people in the Court and the jury
appeared to have noticed and were looking at the judge and not me or the
prosecutor. Some of the jury looked surprised and others were
10. When I first heard the noise it was quite soft and not
particularly distracting but as it became louder and other people appeared to
notice I found it very disruptive and it made it hard to concentrate on the
questions. I did not really know what to do about this and I did my best to just
try to concentrate on the questions and my answers.
11. At one point,
when the snoring was at its loudest, the prosecutor appeared to stop asking
questions and I turned to the associate who shrugged her shoulders. I looked
back and then I heard a loud banging noise behind me and I turned to look back
and saw the judge looking up startled. The questioning continued and after maybe
ten minutes I heard the snoring noise again. This happened a number of times
whilst I was giving my evidence.”
The argument on appeal:
“The basic proposition put
forward by the Appellants was that proceedings are not being conducted in a
properly constituted court if the judge is absent. A judge who is physically
present in the courtroom but unconscious is in substantially the same position
as a judge who is outside the courtroom. These propositions were tested by
reference to the possibility of a judge who is out of sight but not out of
hearing, a judge who is absent for the briefest of periods, a judge who was
present and conscious but abstracted or inadvertent and a judge who was present
and conscious but indulging in buffoonery or other distracting conduct.” And the
“[I]n my view the conduct of a trial before a judge
and jury required that the judge be present and conscious during the whole of
the trial proceedings, at least to the extent that any absence or period of
sleep beyond any period which was insignificant because not more than momentary.
Further, I am satisfied that the periods during which the judge was asleep could
not be dismissed as insignificant for the conduct of the trial.”
majority of the court, however, held the BIG SLEEP hadn't caused a miscarriage
of the justice and the convictions were confirmed.
CESAN v DIRECTOR OF
PUBLIC PROSECUTIONS (CTH); MAS RIVADAVIA v DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC PROSECUTIONS (CTH)
 NSWCCA 273
A tip of the cap to Professor David
Vaver, Oxford University, for drawing this case to my attention.